Image Sources

Introduction

Lively reef. Photo: Mulyadi Setiono URL: http://forum.kapalselam.org/2007/01/11/lively-reef/ Last access: 05.02.2009
Landsat 5 TM image, 1987. Sensor: Landsat 5 TM Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Landsat 7 ETM+ image, 2000. Sensor: Landsat 7 ETM+ Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Atoll in the Pacific Ocean (23/09/01). Sensor: IKONOS Source: GeoEye URL: http://www.geoeye.com/gallery/ioweek/archive/01-09-23/index.htm Last access: 18.06.2008

Chapter 1: Identity card of a coral reef

Welcome to an underwater world. Source: NOAA © 1972 by Katherine Orr URL: http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/books/paccoral/reefcb2.htm Last access: 05.02.2009
Orange cup coral (Tubastraea faulkneri) open at night to feed in East Timor. Photo: Nick Hobgood URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cup_coral.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Single-celled zooxanthellae live in the tissue of many corals. Photo: LSA University of Michigan URL: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_3.html Last access: 05.02.2009
Cross section of a coral polyp. Source: NOAA URL: http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/education/docs/5C_Corals_101.ppt Last access: 05.02.2009
Cross section of a coral polyp. Source: NOAA URL: http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/books/paccoral/reefcb6.htm Last access: 05.02.2009
Sea surface temperature in the Red Sea. Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Light is necessary for the growth of corals. Photo: NOAA URL: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/reef/ Last access: 05.02.2009
Fringing coral reef near Eilat, Israel. Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Mark A. Wilson URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EilatFringingReef.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Drawings: fringing reef, fringing reef transforming into barrier reef, barrier reef, atoll. Source: NOAA URL: http://sludge.wordpress.com/2006/11/02/coral-reefs-and-oil-spills-a-guided-tour/ Last access: 05.02.2009
Australia's Great Barrier Reef (26/08/00). Sensor: MISR/Terra Source: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team URL: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia03401 Last access: 05.02.2009
Tureia Atoll in French Polynesia (07/06/06). Sensor: ALI/EO-1 Source: NASA/EO-1 Science Team/Lawrence Ong URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17350 Last access: 05.02.2009
Darwin's Subsidence Theory. Source: Vanderstraeten URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Dynamic process of coral atoll formation (the corals are represented in purple and tan). Source: NOAA URL: http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/media/supp_coral04a.html Last access: 05.02.2009

Chapter 2: Importance of coral reefs

A beautiful underwater world. Source: ReefVid URL: http://www.reefvid.org Last access: 05.02.2009
Interaction between coral reefs and other ecosystems. Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
A school of Golden Crevalle (Gnathanodon speciosus) "flash" the camera on their way by at Czech Point dive site in the waters of Coiba National Park, Panama. Photo: © Laszlo Ilyes URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gnathanodon_speciosus.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Snorkelling and scuba diving are fast growing industries. Photo: NOAA Ocean Explorer, 2005 URL: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/islands01/background/outreach/media/islands01ed.html Last access: 05.02.2009
Canary in the mine shaft. Source: Seeking Alpha URL: http://www.defensestockblog.com/article/28544-options-trader-friday-morning-ideas Last access: 05.02.2009

Chapter 3: Coral reefs under attack

Cyclone Percy across the South Pacific (01/03/05). Sensor: MODIS/Aqua Source: NASA/GSFC/MODIS Rapid Response Team/Jacques Descloitres URL: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=6772 Last access: 05.02.2009
Crown of Thorns (Acanthaster planci). Koh Similan, Boulder City, Thailand. Photo: Jon Hanson, 2005 URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crown_of_Thorns-jonhanson.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Athens urban area (12/06/04). Sensor: Astronaut photograph Photo: NASA URL: http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/EarthObservatory/AthensGreece.htm Last access: 05.02.2009
Photo of green algal growth on rocky areas of the ocean intertidal shore, indicating a nearby nutrient source, Kahuku, O'ahu, Hawaii. Photo: Eric Guinther, 2005 URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Intertidal_greenalgae.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Scuba diving in Carmen, Agusan del Norte, Philippines. Photo: Historianurian URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Scuba.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Oil from the bombed power plant of Jieh contaminating the beaches of Beirut, Lebanon (August 2006). Photo: Zenahla URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lebanon_oil_beach.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Projected surface temperature changes by 2099. Source: IPCC 3th assessment report: Climate change 2001, The Scientific Basis, 2001 URL: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg1/index.htm Last access: 05.02.2009
Diseased corals, Southwater Cay, Caribbean, Belize. Source: ReefVid URL: www.ReefVid.org Last access: 05.02.2009
Dead fish as the result of blast fishing. Photo: NOAA URL: http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/visions/coral/image4_650.jpg Last access: 05.02.2009
Changes in sea-surface pH from anthropogenic CO2 emissions (pre-industrial to 1990's). Source: Pacific Science Association, 2007 URL: http://www.pacificscience.org/tfoceanacidification.html Last access: 05.02.2009
Annual carbon flows and storage (billion metric tons). Source: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 2007 URL: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/research/themes/carbon/ Last access: 05.02.2009
Effects of increasing carbon dioxide and temperature on coral reefs. Photo: NOAA Coral Reef Watch URL: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2007/20071213_carboncoral.html Last access: 05.02.2009

Chapter 4: Coral bleaching

A starcoral in 1988, where coral bleaching has already started. Photo: USGS URL: http://coralreefs.wr.usgs.gov/risk.html Last access: 05.02.2009
The same starcoral in 1998, where major coral bleaching is detectable. Photo: USGS URL: http://coralreefs.wr.usgs.gov/risk.html Last access: 05.02.2009
Global trends in coral bleaching. Photo: Marshall, Schuttenberg, 2006, A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching URL: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/activities/reef_managers_guide/pdfs/reef_managers_guide.pdf Last access: 05.03.2009
SST anomalies and coral bleaching events, during El Niño event of 1997-1998. Photo: World Resources Institute URL: http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/coastal-marine/map-207.html Last access: 05.02.2009

Chapter 5: Remote sensing for coral reef mapping

Island Tanimbar (Indonesia) seen from space. Sensor: Aerian photograph Source: BELSPO, 2007 Last access: 05.02.2009
Local measurements. Source: Jim Hendee URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oa-buoy-enrique-reef.jpg Last access: 05.03.2009
Satellite data. Source: Michael Favor URL: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-iif.jpg Last access: 05.03.2009
Schematic view. Source: Ghent University Last access: 05.02.2009
Coral reflectance (dead coral, hard coral, soft coral, algae) in Tanimbar, Indonesia. Source: VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research Last access: 05.02.2009
Electromagnetic spectrum. Source: Philip Ronan URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EM_spectrum.svg Last access: 05.03.2009
Bondan & Undul saving the coral reef. Source: © 2006 Yayasan TERANGI URL: http://www.terangi.or.id Last access: 05.02.2009
Satellite image of Hurghada (Egypt), 2000. Sensor: Landsat 7 ETM+ Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Patterns of light penetration into water. Source: Tom Morris, Fullerton College URL: http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/chapter_3.htm Last access: 05.02.2009
Staghorn coral in seagrass. Photo: Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary/NOAA URL: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/reef2564.htm Last access: 05.02.2009
Image of the island of Fordate in Tanimbar (Indonesia) and derived bottom-classification map. Sensor: CHRIS/Proba Source: VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research Last access: 05.02.2009
Image of the island of Fordate in Tanimbar (Indonesia) and derived bottom-classification map. Sensor: CASI hyperspectral data Source: VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research Last access: 05.02.2009
Coastline changes between 1987 and 2000 around the city of Hurghada, Egypt. Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Risk assessment map. Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Study area near Jebel Ali in the southern Arabian Gulf. Source: S. J. Purkis URL: http://www.nova.edu/~purkis/papers/Purkis-IEEE-2005.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Enhanced true-color IKONOS image marking out the study area. Source: S. J. Purkis URL: http://www.nova.edu/~purkis/papers/Purkis-IEEE-2005.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Predictive habitat map resulting from the smoothed classified image. Source: S. J. Purkis URL: http://www.nova.edu/~purkis/papers/Purkis-IEEE-2005.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
The classification comprises 22 substrate classes. Source: S. J. Purkis URL: http://www.nova.edu/~purkis/papers/Purkis-IEEE-2005.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Transect data obtained from field mapping using the 22 substrate categories. Source: S. J. Purkis URL: http://www.nova.edu/~purkis/papers/Purkis-IEEE-2005.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Palm Islands in Dubai, United Arab Emirates Source: Helmut Pfau URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PalmIslandDubai.JPG Last access: 05.03.2009
The Argo Merchant ran aground on December 15, 1976. A silvery oil slick can be seen coming from the center holds. Source: NOAA URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Argo_Merchant_run_aground.jpg Last access: 05.03.2009
Dead fish on the Soummam River, probably because of pesticides. Source: Zil URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Poisson_mort_pr%C3%A8s_d%27une_barque_de_p%C3%AAche.jpg Last access: 05.03.2009
Fishermen in Bangladesh. Source: USAID Bangladesh URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BD-fishermen.jpg Last access: 05.03.2009

Worksheets

Bora Bora, Tahiti. Sensor: IKONOS Source: © 2006 GeoEye URL: http://www.satimagingcorp.com/gallery/ikonos-bora-bora-lg.html Last access: 05.02.2009
Sea Surface Temperature, September 2nd, 2005. Source: NOAA's Coral Reef Watch URL: http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/education/docs/satellite_imagery_worksheet.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Coral Reef Hotspot, September 2nd, 2005. Source: NOAA's Coral Reef Watch URL: http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/education/docs/satellite_imagery_worksheet.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Sea Surface Temperature Time Series. Source: NOAA's Coral Reef Watch URL: http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/education/docs/satellite_imagery_worksheet.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Maximum Degree Heating Weeks, 2005. Source: NOAA's Coral Reef Watch URL: http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/education/docs/satellite_imagery_worksheet.pdf Last access: 05.02.2009
Satellite image of Hurghada (Egypt), 2000. Sensor: Landsat 7 ETM+ Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009
Overall risk assessment map adapted for deep water, Hurghada (Egypt). Source: Vanderstraeten, 2007 URL: The Use of Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Mapping in Support of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. A case Study in the NW Red Sea. Last access: 05.02.2009

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